Friday, June 15, 2018

Criminal Justice Reform 刑事司法改革


Criminal Justice Reform 刑事司法改革
Wayne Yeh 葉華

At what cost is justice served? America has long had a history of excessively harsh criminal justice policies resulting in mass incarceration, over-criminalization of communities of color, and racial injustice. A District Attorney (DA) plays a critical role in determining the effectiveness and fairness of our country’s criminal justice system.

義的代價是什麼?長期以來,  美國一直有過嚴苛的刑事司法政策, 導致大規模監禁、對有人種過度罪和種族不公。地方檢察官在有效定和維護本國公平刑事司法制度起著至關重要的作用。

The DA is the top prosecutor in a district, and leads a staff of assistant district attorneys. They are responsible for presenting a case against an individual and making recommendations for the sentencing of offenders. They play an important role in making the case for whether or not a person should go to jail, and how long of a prison sentence they should get.

地方檢察官DA 是區內的最高檢察官,  並領導助地區檢察官人員。他們負責提針對個人的案件,  並就罪犯判刑作出建議。他們在決定一個人是否應該坐牢,  及他們應該得到多長的刑期案件,  扮演著重要的角色。

Although the criminal justice system is supposed to serve and protect the people, the system is broken and mistreats innocent people of color--particularly Black people and Latinos.

雖然刑事司法制度理應服務和保護人民,  但該制度崩,  危害了無辜的有色人種--尤其是黑人和拉美人。

The U.S. prison system is overrepresented by people of color. Forty percent of the U.S. prison population are Black, although they make up only 13 percent of the overall U.S. population. People of color, especially Black males, are also charged with harsher sentences than White people for the same crimes. Between 2007 and 2011, Black males received sentences 19.5% longer than White people.

美國監獄系統擠滿了有色人種。美國在囚人口有百份40是黑人,  儘管他們僅占美國總人口的百份13色人,  尤其是黑人男性,  也被控以比白人更嚴厲的刑罰。在20072011之間,  黑人男性接受的刑期比白人長百份19.5

A study by the United States Sentencing Commission found that on average, Black men who commit the same crimes as white men receive federal prison sentences nearly 20 percent longer.

美國量刑委員會United States Sentencing Commission的一項研究發現,  平均而言,  犯下同樣罪行的黑人男性, 在聯邦監獄服刑的刑期會長近百份20

Adults are not the only ones being impacted by a broken justice system. Youth of color also face harsher punishments at school than White students. A study in 2010 found that more than 70% of students involved in school-related incidents referred to law enforcement are Black or Latino. Black students are also three times more likely to be suspended or expelled than their White peers.

成年人不是唯一受壞的司法系統影響的人。在學校,  人種年輕人比白人學生面臨更嚴厲的懲罰。在2010年的一項研究發現涉及與學校有關的事件,而轉介往執法機關,有超過百份70的學生是黑人或拉丁裔。黑人學生被或開除學籍率是同輩白人的三倍。

Harsher sentences lead to more of our community members behind bars, but it does not lead to reducing crime. The District Attorney plays an instrumental role in deciding which criminal cases to pursue and what charges to file. Prosecutors also make the decision of whether or not to seek bail, which is the temporary release of a person awaiting trial on the condition that they pay a certain amount of money, sometimes in cash. Oftentimes, people accused of a crime are put in prison before they have even been proven guilty. The only thing they are guilty of is being too poor to afford cash bail.

更嚴厲的判決導致更多的社區成員在監獄裡,  但這並不能減少犯罪。 地方檢察官在決定要追究些刑事案件和起訴什麼罪方面發揮了重要作用。檢官還決定是否尋求保釋,  即暫時釋放等待審判的人,  條件是他們支付一定數額的金錢,  有時是現金。通常在被證明有罪之前,  被指控犯罪的人被關進監獄。他們唯一的罪就是太窮,  不能支付現金保釋。

Cash bail has long contributed to overcrowding of jails. Research shows that cash bail systems discriminate against low-income defendants of color held on nonviolent and low-level crimes.

長期以來現金保釋導致監獄人滿患。研究指出,  現金保釋制度歧視低收入人種被告,而被關押的原因是涉及非暴力和低級犯罪。

Did you know that DAs are elected by local voters? With so much at stake in the hands of the top criminal justice official, it’s critical for us to know the impact this position elected by the people can have on the lives of working-class and immigrant communities of color. We hope that our community members who are eligible to vote understand the importance of voting in every election, not just the elections that get the most awareness.

你知道地方檢察官 DAs 是由當地選民選出的嗎?在高刑事司法官員的手中,  有如此多的利害關係,  我們必須知道,  人們所選出來的這個職位工階和移民群體的生活會產生什麼樣的影響。我們希望有資格投票的社人士,  明白在每一選舉投票的重要性,  而不單是最有覺的選舉中投票

According to a poll conducted by the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts, 84% of voters in Massachusetts believe our criminal justice system should be changed so that people are not treated differently based on their race.

美國麻州公民自由聯盟American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts進行的一項民意調查顯示,  百份之84 的麻州選民認為,  我們的刑事司法系統應該改變,  這樣人們的種族不會受到不同的待遇。

We cannot let another District Attorney’s race go by without being engaged in the election and having a say in who gets to be the people’s prosecutor. Will you commit to becoming more informed of the DA candidates and vote in the September 4 primary election?

我們不能讓另一位地方檢察官在無競爭對手的情況下當,  並在誰成為人民檢察官的情況無發言權。你會否承諾更瞭解地方檢察官候選人及在94日初選中投票?



Asian American 亞裔美國人



Asian American 亞裔美國人

Wayne Yeh葉華

Goal: For members to understand the history of how Asian Americans have been racialized, so that they have a stronger identity as people of color and deeper solidarity with other communities of color (could focus on model minority myth, AARW pet/threat workshop content, etc.)

要旨: 讓會員瞭解亞裔美國人如何被種族化的歷史, 使他們作為有色人種有一個更強的身份認同, 並與其他有色人種社區有更深的團結 ( 可能集中於講及模範少數族裔神話, 裔文化中心 AARW 寵兒或威脅研討會內容等。)

What Does it Mean to be Asian American?
亞裔美國人意味著什麼?

The term “Asian American” has been used for the past fifty years. However, Asians have been in America for far greater than just five decades. The history of immigrants coming to America from Asian countries can be traced back to 1587 when a group of Filipinos arrived in Morro Bay, California on a Spanish Galleon more than three decades before Pilgrims from England arrived at Plymouth Rock. In 1763, Filipino workers escaped a Spanish ship in New Orleans, Louisiana, and became the first migrant community in the United States to come from an Asian country. Over the next century, waves of labor migration brought Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Indians. Many of them worked on plantations in Hawaii, gold mines, and the continental railroad.

"亞裔美國人" 一詞在過去的五十年中被人們使用。然而, 亞洲人在美國的經歷遠超過五年。亞洲國家移民美國的歷史可追溯到 1587, 當英國的朝聖者Pilgrims抵達普利茅斯石Plymouth Rock在此三年之前一群菲律賓人已乘西班牙帆船Spanish Galleon抵達加利福尼亞California的莫洛灣Morro Bay。在 1763, 菲律賓工人逃離了在路易斯安那州Louisiana新奧爾良New Orleans的一艘西班牙船, 並成立了美國第一個來自亞洲國家的移民社區。在下個世紀, 工遷移浪潮帶來了中國、日本、韓國、菲律賓和印度。他們中許多在夏威夷種植園、金礦和美洲大陸鐵路勞動

During World War II, over 110,000 Japanese American families were unjustly rounded up and placed in unconstitutional internment camps for fear of holding allegiance to the Empire of Japan. However, many of the Japanese Americans were born in the United States. In addition, many other Asian ethnic groups, such as Chinese Americans, distinguish themselves by wearing “I am Chinese” buttons so that they would not be targeted by anti-Japanese sentiment.

二戰期間, 11萬名日裔美國家庭恐防效忠日本帝國而不公平地被安置在違憲的拘留營中。然而, 許多日裔美國人在美國出生。此外, 許多其他亞洲族裔群體, 如華裔美國人, 都以掛上 "我是中國人" 的紐扣來區分自己, 這樣他們就會避開反日情緒攻擊。

While laborers coming to America from Asian countries prior to the 1960s were ethnically Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Indian, the American government referred to them with derogatory terms such as “Oriental,” “Asiatic,” and “Mongoloid.” Just as African Americans struggled for their own equal rights under the law through the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, the outcomes impacted and benefitted all immigrants and communities of color. In the height of the Civil Rights Movement, Asians in the United States intentionally embraced the term “Asian American” coined by a Japanese American historian named Yuji Ichioka. The term “Asian American” is used as a multi-ethnic pan-Asian American self-identifying political group in solidarity with other communities of color struggling for equal rights.

二十世紀六十年代之前從亞洲國家來美國的勞工多是華人、日本人、韓國人、菲律賓和印, 而美國政府則用貶義詞來稱呼他們, 例如 "東方人""亞洲人" "蒙古種"。正如二十世紀六十年代, 非裔美國人通過民權運動為自己的平等權利而抗爭, 結果影響和惠及所有移民和人種社區。在民權運動的高, 在美國亞洲人故意擁抱由日裔美國史學家Yuji Ichioka創構的"亞裔美國人" 一詞。"亞裔美國人" 一詞被一個多民族的泛亞裔美國人用作自我認同的政治團體, 聲援其他人種族群, 爭取平等權利。

“Asian American” was inspired by the term “Afro-American” coined by Black activists in the Civil Rights Movement and was used as an umbrella term for Americans with roots or origins in Asia. Being Asian American is a political statement that we are united by our status as being American, but we claim a new political identity for empowerment, social change, and racial and ethnic equity.

"亞裔美國人" 是由黑人維權人士在民權運動中所創 "非裔美國人" 一詞感召, 並被紮根亞洲的美國人用作保護傘。作為亞裔美國人是一個政治表態, 我們美國的地位是團結的, 但我們主張權力、社會變革、種族和族裔平等中,賦予新的政治身份。

In 1977, the Office of Management and Budget recognized the growing use of an “Asian American” identity and directed that the 1980 Census collect aggregate data on “Asians and Pacific Islanders.” Previously, these groups were thrown into an “Other” category. For the first time, the 1980 Census provided a deeper look at the Asian American community and revealed that they are the fastest-growing population in America with a median household income and college attendance rate that outpaced White people. This did not come without consequence in the post-Civil Rights era.

1977, 管理和預算辦公室Office of Management and Budget認識到越來越多使用 "亞裔美國人" 身份, 並指示1980人口普查收集 "亞洲人和太平洋島民" 的綜合資料。以前, 這些組別是歸進為 "其他" 類別。1980的人口普查首次為亞裔美國人提供了更深層的研究, 揭示了他們是美國增長最快的人口, 家庭收入中位數和大學入學率超白人。這在民權運動時代之後所帶來的結,不無關係

Asian Americans became labeled as the model minority tool, used as a racial wedge between Asians and other communities of color. Asian Americans became elevated by the dominant White narrative as “hardworking” and “deserving,” which served as a tactic to put down Black Americans and minimize the impact of the civil rights movement. Asians began to be portrayed as a rebuttal to Black Americans calling out institutional racism. Specifically, the Asians that White supremacy uplifts as the model minority are highly educated professional Asians who immigrated by means of selective recruitment.

亞裔美國人被標為模範少數族裔工具, 用作亞洲人和其他人種族群之間的種族楔子。亞裔美國人的地位提升被主流白人 "勤勞" "應得的"的成果, 這策略是貶低美國黑人和減少民權運動影響。亞洲人開始被描繪為對美國黑人評擊制度化種族主義反駁。具體來說, 白人至上有意提升亞為小數族模範,受過高等教育的專業亞裔, 便成為他們通過選擇性招攬移民。

Although there was a new term coined, groups still used both used ethnic identities relating to their country of origin, in addition to a racial identity grounded in unity and solidarity with each other and communities of color for the sake of racial equity. While there are some subgroups of Asian Americans, such as East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asians, each subgroup is still made of ethnic identities. These racial and ethnic identities are separate from nationality, which is a country that a citizen belongs to.

雖然創構了一個新的名詞, 族群同時用與原籍國有關的族裔身份, 除了種族身份團結外,並以種族平等為基礎, 彼此團結及團結有人種社區。儘管在亞裔美國人中有一些細分族, 如東亞、南亞和東南亞人, 但每個分組別,仍然是由族裔身份組成的。這些種族和族裔身份與國籍分開的, 這是所屬的國家公民。
           



Tuesday, June 5, 2018

一起走近上海街 Walking Along Shanghai Street With Mom








一起走近上海街

午間新聞已過,香港電臺正播送著由瞽師杜煥主持的下午南音。雖是兒女成群,母親認為自己還算後生,未到滄桑的年華,因此,對地水南音興趣不大,決定去大世界戲院,看看有什麼好戲。

緊握著母親的手,沒有沿著斑馬線過馬路,從砵蘭街荔枝角道口,跨越六條行車線,險象橫生,幸好平安在上海浴德池外登陸,只見兩頁玻璃門邊,有一木牌,上面寫著謝絕女賓,好奇地問母親,這是甚麼店,她說還記得油漆判頭許權叔的故事嗎,他在那上海澡堂沐浴,老泥皮連腳枕,足足有個乒乓球般大。此時,眼見有三山五岳,便衣探頭,閒雜人等出入,不便久留,母親拖我,迅速離開。

快步走到大世界戲院,抬頭一看,未換畫,仍是上映任白戲寶枇杷巷口故人來。母親說已經帶五家姐看過,當時還是聖羅撒女子中學段考,是中期試,雖不是考升班試,大家姐知道了,非常生氣。於是,為準備升中,轉到英華書局,買了一套鐵盒裝幾何繪圖儀器,比起在太子道彌敦道口九龍警察總部對面的長城書店,便宜了幾毫子。肚子開始有點餓,出盡八寶,都要母親花一個幾毫,到劉楊記吃碗雲吞麵,正宗大地魚拗湯,雲吞香脆鮮美,蛋麵爽口彈牙,吃得津津有味,韭黃連湯,一起倒下喉嚨,滑進肚皮。

母親說表姐大婚期近,要買點金器造人情。買手飾,一定要幫襯上海街老字號中興金鋪,彌敦道周大福周生生租人工貴,食水深,都是中興比較老實。眼見熟客仔到來,香煙立即送到嘴唇邊,連忙打火點煙,招呼十分週到。一坐下來,椅墊子也磨穿,挑選了沒太多無謂雕花的手鐲,省點手工。討價還價,母親是高手,永遠是贏家,結果八五折成交,掌櫃還要送她兩根銀耳挖。眼見外邊行人稀少,為安全起見,店員迅速把金手鐲戒指放進塑膠紅圓盒,連金單擠進紙袋。銀貨兩,母親卻施施然把金器放入真皮白色手袋,若無其事,握著我手,步出金鋪。

再往前走,就是老頭開的舊書店了,那裡舊書雜誌,堆積如山,有人拿來一捆舊書,老頭看也不看, 一手向書山後拋,給了來人三毛錢,這些書從此消失在故紙堆中。埋藏在書堆的,可能是錢穆國史大綱手稿,牟宗三新儒學論述,顧頡剛的古史辨,唐君毅論春秋經傳,當然還會有徐復觀的中國藝術精神。要認真的去發掘是需要花時間,金錢反而不算是什麼,放在前面數排是財叔漫畫,南國電影,髒得不敢亂翻。

回頭走過馬路,折返龍珠酒家,為太嫲八秩開一,母親替她訂十圍八圍酒席祝壽。龍珠地下是屬地踎茶居,以低下層三行苦力填肚子為多,三樓禮堂較為企理,酒菜豐儉由人,比起彌敦道新雅瓊華價錢平三份一,母親精打細算,數口之家,況且離砵蘭街近,唯家姐們沒有舉腳贊成。熱薰換了蟹肉扒豆苗,不用加錢,母親談判真有一手。為了大哥的婚禮,做新奶奶,母親還在冠南華,訂了黑色底鑲金銀線裙,當晚的她,雍容華貴,艷壓全場。

三家姐跟嶺南畫派大師周士心先生學國畫,獲贈金魚嬉水圖一幅,為趕農曆年前,掛在廳中,光顧龍珠酒家旁邊的鏡框舖裝裱,為好意頭,我也學母親還價廿三元,滿以為萬無所失,結果兩塊銅片鈎沒有了,只用鐵線一條,大為失真。倒想母親還健在,討回公道。


數年前,在網上看到上海街上,滿佈黃底紅字塑膠燈箱招牌,倒要問,這還是我所熟識的上海街嗎?幸好,危險的燈箱招牌因違反建築物條例拆除。回過來再看,只見冠南華裙店的招牌,其他的已經消失得無影蹤。更令人惋惜的是,母親再穿上那黑色底鑲金銀線裙的時候,已經是離我而去了。6/5/2018